Published: November 28, 2021 (upd.)
In response to our article on Google Search, SPR has been made aware of three additional and genuine search engine alternatives (in addition to Microsoft Bing and Russian Yandex):
1) In June 2021, independent US browser developer Brave beta-launched its own search engine, Brave Search, which is creating and using its own search index.
2) British search engine Mojeek, founded in 2004, has also built its own independent search index of currently about 4 billion pages.
3) Swiss meta-search engine eTools combines results from Google, Bing, Yandex, Brave, Mojeek and some other search engines in a transparent and configurable way.
In terms of “contrarian results”, it looks like Yandex is currently in the lead, followed by Mojeek and Bing, and finally Brave. However, according to a white paper Brave is planning to introduce customizable filter rules called “goggles”, including a filter for “independent media”.
As previously described, most other search engines rely on results provided by Microsoft Bing; this includes DuckDuckGo, Yahoo, Qwant, Ecosia, Swisscows, MetaGer, and others.
To learn more about online media sources, search engines, ad blockers, bypassing paywalls and censorship, see Advanced Online Media Use: Nine Recommendations.
Update: In late 2020, Chinese technology corporation Huawei launched its own search engine, Petal Search, in response to US sanctions against Chinese companies. Thus, it looks like the online search engine market is increasingly becoming a geopolitical battlefield.